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There is still a large community of Creoles in Louisiana today. It is said that, as intermediaries between the Blacks and the whites, they got European instruments into the hands of African musicians and thereby facilitated the development of jazz.In New England we find Cape Verdians, Africans who migrated here in the 18th and 19th century aboard whaling ships that stopped in Cabo Verde, an island off the coast of West Africa, to resupply and pick up extra hands.Also, we have the Caribbean and the recent immigrant African communities. In order to understand how this land came to be what it is, we must know its history.In truth however, the Africans and Caribbean peoples have been coming here for nearly 150 years and blending in, over time, with the Africans already here. This is a story of Indian and African resistance to white colonial rule in Louisiana during the earliest days of French occupation. We must not dismiss the genocide against Indians and Africans or the clever and fierce resistance that Indians and Africans put up in the wake of an unholy tumult perpetrated by Europeans.They cut pine trees to build Fort Maurepas, the first of several forts in the region.Without even so much as a “Bon jour” to the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Natchez and other nations they had invaded, they planted their flag and declared that tens of millions of acres of land in the Louisiana Territory now belonged to France.In their times of need, even soldiers from the military garrisons abandoned their barracks and sought refuge in Indian towns.Indians always took them in and fed and housed them for weeks and even months at a time.

( It has been said that most African Americans are, in part, descended from Native Americans.

He also talks about “,” areas of the country where large numbers of enslaved Africans had lived in the midst of a surrounding sea of Europeans and Native Americans.

After the Civil War they gradually intermixed with the surrounding peoples creating enclaves of individuals of what Frazier calls “.” He identifies Ahoskie, North Carolina and Mahwah, New York as just two examples.

Hence, their children, “,” had to be Black and Native American.

For example, Jean Baptiste Pont du Sable, who founded Chicago was a Creole.

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