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The water pipe (qalyān) and tobacco, for instance, are mentioned in a poem of the Persian poet Ahli Širāzi (d. It seems, therefore, that Abu’l-Fath Gilani should be credited with the introduction of the ḡalyān, already in use in Persia, into India.

Some challenged this theory by connecting the invention time of the water pipe to the time that water pipe arrived in India. 41, 110), who does not mention his source, writes that it was Abu’l-Fatḥ Gīlānī (d.

; also see other names) is a single or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco (called Mu‘assel), or sometimes cannabis or hashish, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.

The hookah or Argyleh soon reached Egypt and the Levant during the Ottoman dynasty from neighbouring Safavid dynasty, where it became very popular and where the mechanism was later perfected.

The widespread use of the Indian word "hookah" in the English language is a result of the colonization in British India (1858–1947), when large numbers of expatriate Britons first sampled the water pipe.

In a nationwide survey, 9.8 percent of high school students report being hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend in the 12 months prior to the survey.

1588), a Persian physician at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar I, who “first passed the smoke of tobacco through a small bowl of water to purify and cool the smoke and thus invented the hubble-bubble or hookah.” These claims are based on assumptions such as a) There is, no evidence of the existence of the water pipe until the 1560s. But older Persian texts make it clear that the ḡalyān (the Persian name of the waterpipe) had become common on every level of the society in Persia, women included.

In schools and learned circles, both teachers and students had ḡalyāns while lessons continued (Falsafī, II, pp.

New materials make modern hookahs more durable, eliminate odors while smoking and allow washing without risks of corrosion or bacterial decay.

New technologies and modern design trends are changing the appearance of hookahs.

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